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Fig. 1: Male

Fig. 2: Male

Fig. 3: Female

Fig. 4: Female

Fig. 5: Larval head

Fig. 6: Male genitalia

Fig. 7: Female genitalia

Recognition

Diagnostic features

Adults

FWL: 8.0-11.0mm (M); 11.5-12.0mm (F)

Adults are pale yellow to brown and may be variably mottled with dark brown. Most specimens have at least one well defined costal spot, which is a remnant of the median fascia. Abdominal segments A2-A6 have a median dorsal pit. Males lack a forewing costal fold. This is the only tortricid covered here that lacks ocelli.

Larvae

Larvae are yellowish green and may have dark lateral lines. The prothoracic shield and head is tan to brown with dark brown to black lateral bands.

Related or similar species

Larvae may be confused with LBAM in Hawaii as they share similar habits; however, the lateral band on the prothoracic shield of emigratella will serve to separate the two species.

Biology

Life history

Eggs are laid in masses of 65-120 eggs on the upper surface of leaves. Females cover the egg mass with a whitish coating. Larvae feed within a shelter constructed of webbed leaves or leaves webbed to fruit; they may also feed within flower heads or buds. Larvae complete 4-5 instars and pupation occurs in the larval shelter. Adults eclose in approximately 10 days.

Host plants

Amorbia emigratella has been recorded from plant species in over 14 different families, many of which include economically important crops. The following is a partial host list: avocado (Persea americana), beans (Phaseolus sp.), blackberry (Rubus sp.), broccoli (Brassica oleracea), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), corn (Zea mays), eggplant (Solanum melongena), gorse (Ulex sp.), guava (Psidium sp), macadamia (Macadamia sp.), orange (Citrus sp.), papaya (Carica sp.), peanut (Arachis sp.), sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas), and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

Area of origin

Mexico and Central America; described from Hawaii (introduced)

Distribution

Southern United States and Central America; all major Hawaiian islands except Lanai

Taxonomy

Current valid name

Amorbia emigratella Busck

Common names

  • Mexican leafroller

Synonyms

  • none

Placement

Tortricinae: Sparganothini

Selected References

Fullaway, D. T. and N. L. H. Krauss. 1945. 193. Amorbia emigratella Busck, pp. 122-123. In Common Insects of Hawaii. Tongg Publishing Company, Honolulu. 228 pp.

Phillips-Rodriguez, E. and J. A. Powell. 2007. Phylogenetic relationships, systematics, and biology of the species of Amorbia Clemens (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Sparganothini). Zootaxa. 1670. 109 pp.

Zimmerman, E. C. 1978. Insects of Hawaii, Volume 9, Microlepidoptera, Part 1. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 881 pp.