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Fig. 1: Male

Fig. 2: Male

Fig. 3: Female

Fig. 4: Female

Fig. 5: Male genitalia

Fig. 6: Female genitalia

Fig. 7: Larval prothoracic shield

Fig. 8: Larva lateral aspect

Recognition

Diagnostic features

Adults

FWL: 7.5-10.8mm

This species is sexually dimorphic: male adults have a uniform white to yellowish-brown unmarked forewing while female adults are variably marked with light to dark brown. Some females have a strong fasciate pattern. Males lack a costal fold.

Larvae

Last instar larvae are greenish brown or yellowish green with pale lateral lines and are approximately 14-18mm in length. The head is pale brown with dark brown margins and the prothoracic shield is concolorous with the rest of the body.

Related or similar species

The narrow, elongate forewings separate this species from most of the other Tortricidae covered here. Other Cnephasia species may be similar but longana is the only species in this genus reported from North America.

Biology

Life history

Adults are present from late March to early July in California.

Females lay eggs singly or in small batches in depressions or cracks in the bark of trees and cover them with bits of debris. After hatching, first instar larvae search out suitable cracks or crevices in bark, construct a silk hibernaculum, and hibernate for the remainder of the summer and following winter. Larvae leave the hibernaculum in the spring and disperse to nearby herbaceous plants by ballooning with the aid of silk threads. After encountering a suitable host, larvae mine within leaves close to the ground. Later instars web terminal parts of the plant, including the shoots, buds, and/or flowers. In some instances larvae may bore into fruit (such as strawberries), causing economic damage.

Host plants

Cnephasia longana was first discovered in Oregon and Washington as a pest of strawberries. The larvae are generalist feeders on a large number of herbaceous plants; in Europe longana can be a pest on cereal crops. Larvae have been recorded feeding on members of the following families: Asteraceae, Convolvulaceae, Fabaceae, Geraniaceae, Hydrophyllaceae, Linaceae, Papaveraceae, Polygonaceae, Rosaceae, Scrophulariaceae, and Violaceae.

Area of origin

Western Europe

Distribution

Native to western Europe; introduced into western North America and currently present in southern British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and California; also found in northwestern Africa and Asia

Taxonomy

Current valid name

Cnephasia longana (Haworth)

Common names

  • omnivorous leaf-tier
  • omnivorous leaf roller
  • strawberry fruitworm

Synonyms

  • Cnephasia l. cadizensis, C. l. minor, C. ongana
  • Sciaphila gratana, S. loeviana, S. stratana
  • Sphaleroptera capillana
  • Tortrix egenana, T. expallidana, T. ictericana, T. insolatana, T. longana, T. luridalbana, T. lutosana

Placement

Tortricinae: Cnephasiini

Selected References

Bradley, J. D., W. G. Tremewan and A. Smith. 1973. British tortricoid moths, Cochylidae and Tortricidae: Tortricinae. The Ray Society, London. 259 pp.

Crop Protection Compendium. 2007 Edition. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 2007.

Glas, M. 1991. Tortricids in cereals, pp. 553-661. In: L. P. S. van der Geest, H. H. Evenhuis (eds.), Tortricid pests, their biology, natural enemies and control. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Powell, J. A. 1964. Biological and taxonomic studies on tortricine moths, with reference to the species in California. University of California Publications in Entomology. Vol. 32. 317 pp.