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Fig. 1: Male

Fig. 2: Male

Fig. 3: Female

Fig. 4: Female

Fig. 5: Resting adult

Fig. 6: Egg mass

Fig. 7: Late instar larva

Fig. 8: Larval damage

Fig. 9: Larval head

Fig. 10: Male genitalia

Fig. 11: Female genitalia

Recognition

Diagnostic features

Adults

FWL: 4.5-7.0mm (M); 6.5-9.0mm (F)

Forewing color is golden brown to dark brown and individual wing color can vary greatly. Male forewings are generally dark brown on the basal half and golden brown on the distal half. Female forewings are more uniform in color and markings are usually less distinct. Labial palpi are longer than most other tortricid species treated here. Males have a small forewing costal fold at the base of the forewing; in worn specimens the costal fold may appear to be absent.

Immatures

Mature larvae are translucent, cream colored, and approximately 12-15mm long. The head and prothoracic shield are yellowish brown to dark brown.

Fully developed pupae are dark brown and range in size from 4.0-9.8mm long.

Related or similar species

Platynota stultana is similar to other Platynota species found in the eastern United States. Males can be separated from most other Platynota by the absence of a well developed forewing costal fold. A combination of forewing pattern and very long labial palpi serves to separate stultana adults from other tortricid species treated here.

Larvae may appear similar to other tortricids, including LBAM.

Biology

Life history

Platynota stultana completes 4-6 annual generations in California. Adults may be present year round.

Eggs are laid in masses containing an average of 97 individual eggs per mass. Newly hatched larvae move towards the top of the plant and feed within a bud or between two leaves. Young larvae may also disperse to other hosts by ballooning in the wind on a silk thread. Later instars feed within a shelter constructed of rolled or folded leaves. Larvae complete 5-6 instars in a period of 20-30 days (in greenhouse conditions). Third through fifth instar lavae of the last generation overwinter in webbed nests. Pupation takes place in a rolled leaf.

Host plants

As stultana expanded its range into northern California it appears to also have greatly expanded its host range onto a wide variety of non-native plants. It is recorded from only a few native plants in California.

The following is a partial host list; stultana has been recorded on other plant families not listed here: Albizia sp., alfalfa (Medicago sativa), amaranth (Amaranthus sp.), apple (Malus sp.), Aster sp., avocado (Persea americana), beans (Phaseolus sp.), blackberry and raspberry (Rubus sp.), blackeyed pea (Vigna unguiculata), carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus), celery (Apium graveolens), clover (Trifolium sp.), common beet (Beta vulgaris), corn (Zea mays), Cotoneaster sp., cotton (Gossypium sp.), currant (Ribes sp.), Cyclamen sp., daisy (Chrysanthemum sp.), Eucalyptus sp., Gardenia sp., geranium (Pelargonium sp.), Ginkgo sp., grape (Vitis sp.), grasses (various Poaceae), groundsel (Packera sp.), juniper (Juniperus sp.), lambsquarters (Chenopodium album), lemon (Citrus x limon), mallow (Malva sp.), mandarin (Citrus sp.), mint (Mentha sp.), navel orange (Citrus sp.), peach (Prunus persica), peanut (Arachis sp.), pear (Pyrus sp.), pepper (Capsicum sp.), pine (Pinus sp.), ragweed (Ambrosia sp.), rose (Rosa sp.), rose moss (Portulaca grandiflora), shaddock (Citrus maxima), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), soybean (Glycine max), spiny fiddlewood (Citharexylum spinosum), tara vine (Actinidia arguta), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), walnut (Juglans regia), and yew (Taxus sp.).

This species can be a serious pest of greenhouse plants and vineyards. Major economically important hosts include alfalfa, Citrus sp., corn, cotton, grape, peach, pear, and pepper. Feeding damage to grape leads to bunch-rot, resulting in crop losses as high as 25-80%.

Area of origin

Mexico

Distribution

Recorded from California, Arizona, Hawaii, Texas, Florida, and Mexico. Other records from the eastern United States are questionable.

Taxonomy

Current valid name

Platynota stultana Walsingham

Common names

  • omnivorous leafroller

Synonyms

  • Sparganothis chiquitana, S. stultana
  • Platynota chiquitana

Placement

Tortricinae: Sparganothini

Selected References

AliNiazee, M. T. and E. M. Stafford. 1972. Notes on the biology, ecology, and damage of Platynota stultana on grapes. Journal of Economic Entomology. 65: 1042-1044.

Atkins, E. L., M. H. Frost, L. D. Anderson and A. S. Deal. 1957. The omnivorous leaf roller, Platynota stultana Wlshm., on cotton in California: nomenclature, life history, and bionomics (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 50: 251-259.

Crop Protection Compendium. 2007 Edition. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 2007.

Powell, J. A. 1983. Expanding geographical and ecological range of Platynota stultana in California (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist. 59: 233-239.

Photo Credits

Figures 5-8 used with permission from University of California Statewide IPM Program. Please visit the
UC IPM Web Site for more information.

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