Palm Resource Terminology

A Resource for Pests and Diseases of Cultivated Palms | image of ...

Below are various terms and their definitions as used by the USDA CPHST Identification Technology Program (ITP) Team when describing identification tool and resource development processes and products. The objective of this list is to identify and clearly define terms in order to support effective, consistent communication associated with Lucid identification tools and resources within the program, among all tool builders, and for end-users of ITP’s resources and tools. When available, definitions are taken from the Lucid3 Builder Help Manual.

applet - a program written in the Java programming language that is embedded in an HTML page and is independent of the operating system on which it runs. When you use a browser on a Java-enabled computer to view a page that contains an applet, the applet’s code is transferred to your system and executed by the browser’s Java Runtime Environment. Since the Lucid3 Player is available as a Java applet, users of a Lucid3 key do not necessarily need to download and install a Lucid Player program (as is the case with previous versions of Lucid and with Lucid3 keys that run on the Java-based Lucid3 Player application). (compare application)

application (as computer application) - a computer program or programs which solves a problem or performs a function; for example, the Lucid3 Player application is a program written in the Java programming language that is installed on a computer. (compare applet)

character - 1) a distinctive trait, quality or attribute used for recognizing, describing, or differentiating taxa. 2) term used to denote such descriptive traits that possess states and are located within the Lucid2 interactive matrix panel. (compare feature)

character state - see state

commodity-based identification resource - a computer-based resource comprising several Lucid tools, each of which includes one or more keys and assorted reference material to support the screening/identification/diagnosis of often diverse groups of pests, diseases, and disorders, all associated with one specific trade product.

diseases - both native and exotic bacteria [including Mollicutes (phytoplasmas and spiroplasmas)], fungi, nematodes, and viruses that impact the health of a plant, do damage to a plant, and/or impact products derived from the plant.

disorders - an array of physiological disorders results in symptoms that can be mistaken for a disease. Disorders on palms can be caused by sensitivity to the environment, nutritional deficiency, plant stress, etc.

entity (plural entities) - in Lucid, entities are the items the key aims to identify. Lucid3 uses the term entity to encompass items of all types.

fact sheet - 1) a presentation of data in HTML format on any subject, emphasizing brevity and key points of interest or concern - a way to convey the most relevant information in the least amount of space. 2) an HTML page itemizing the facts or pertinent information about each of a tool’s entities.

feature - 1) a distinctive trait, quality or attribute used for recognizing, describing, or differentiating taxa. 2) term used to denote such descriptive traits that possess states and are located within the Lucid3 interactive matrix panel. (compare character)

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feature dependencies - a scoring function available in the Lucid3 Builder involving control of feature appearance. A feature scored with a positive dependency will be hidden initially and appears only if a specific state is chosen. A feature scored with a negative dependency will be visible initially but will be removed if a specific state is chosen.

feature page - an HTML page containing text and/or images (illustrations and/or photographs) explaining and/or illustrating how to use and understand a feature and its associated states.

feature scoping - see not scoped scoring

hierarchical trees - a way to organize features and entities in Lucid3, using subfeatures nested within features and/or subentities nested within entities (similar to Windows Explorer folder trees), giving authors options for optimal presentation of features and entities to the key user.

image - a digital file of a photograph, drawing, or other illustration. Common digital formats include JPEG and GIF.

incidental taxa - organisms associated with or found on a plant that do not damage or affect the health of the plant and/or products derived from it.

key - a logical device that is a (sometimes ordered) contrasted listing of significant characters (or features) of a group of organisms, used to identify unknown individuals. Several types of keys and key formats exist, including dichotomous and matrix type keys.

Lucid - software package developed by the Centre for Biological Information Technology, University of Queensland. Lucid3 is a cross-platform implementation written in Java that will run on any Java-enabled operating system (including Windows, Macintosh, Unix, and Linux). The Lucid3 system comprises a Builder and a Player for, respectively, creating and deploying matrix-based identification and diagnostic keys. Refer to www.lucidcentral.org for more information.

Lucid key - an interactive matrix comprising (1) a list of entities and a list of features and states describing or otherwise associated with them, (2) score data relating the feature states to the entities, and (3) various images and/or HTML pages attached to the features, states and/or entities.

Lucid resource - two or more related Lucid tools accessible from a single entry page.

Lucid tool - one or more interactive Lucid matrix keys (with attached images and HTML pages) along with a home page and other supporting informational HTML pages not directly attached to the key(s).

macroscopic - large enough to be visible with the naked eye. [Note that when used in a tool intended as a screening aid, it may mean “large enough to be visible with the naked eye, a hand-lens, or at 20x magnification on a stereomicroscope.” The author will usually specify this in the “About this tool” page.]

matrix - a two dimensional array consisting of a list of entities, a list of features and states that may be used to describe those entities, and score data relating the feature states to the entities.

microscopic - invisible or indistinct without the use of a microscope.

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not scoped scoring - a type of Lucid3 scoring in which certain features that are only useful for distinguishing between a narrow set of entities are scored only for those entities (the other entities are scored “not scoped”). Those features remain hidden in the Lucid Player until only entities scored for that particular feature are left in the Entities Remaining panel.

pests – include native and exotic taxa and all life stages of insects, mites, and mollusks that impact the health of a plant, do damage to a plant, and/or impact products derived from the plant.

player - the Lucid3 Player is used to play interactive identification keys created using the Lucid3 Builder. It comes in three forms - an application for use on your hard drive and packaged with CD based keys (Lucid3 Application Player); an applet, which is embedded within a webpage (Lucid3 Applet Player); and the Lucid3 On-Line Player.

resource - a collection of two or more related electronic identification tools accessible from a single entry page. (see also Lucid resource)

state - 1) basic component or distinct phase of a Lucid feature or character that can be observed, measured, or otherwise assessed. 2) the specific value of a feature or character shown in a specific taxon.

state page - HTML page containing text and/or images (illustrations and/or photographs) explaining and/or illustrating how to use and understand a feature state.

subsets – an option in Lucid3 where authors may assign features or entities to groups, or subsets, of their choosing. This enables users to view, for example, only macroscopic features, only “simple” features, or taxa within a certain genus.

symptom-based identification tool - computer-based key(s) and assorted reference material to support the screening/identification/diagnosis of plant symptoms which can then lead to field identification of pests, diseases, and physiological disorders potentially causing the symptoms.

taxon (plural taxa) - 1) a category or unit, as a species, genus, etc., based on a taxonomic system of classification. 2) term used to denote such units within the Lucid2 interactive matrix panel. (compare entity)

taxon-based identification tool - computer-based key(s) and assorted reference material to support the screening/identification/diagnosis of taxa within a particular taxon or group of organisms (e.g., nematodes of North America, genera of the Buprestidae).

tool - an electronic system, site, or program created to support and expedite the identification process. (see also Lucid tool)

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