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Fig. 1: Male

Fig. 2: Male

Fig. 3: Male

Fig. 4: Female

Fig. 5: Late instar larva

Fig. 6: Late instar larva

Fig. 7: Larva

Fig. 8: Male genitalia

Fig. 9: Female genitalia

Fig. 10: Female sterigma

Recognition

Diagnostic features

Adults

FWL: 7.5-11mm (M); 11.5-14mm (F)

Forewing pattern is variable, but the majority of individuals have three fasciae or "bands" that are variably expressed from costa to dorsum. The costal margin is sinuate, giving resting individuals a "bell-shaped" appearance. The distal half of the hindwing is white in males and yellowish in females. Males have a forewing costal fold.

Immatures

Mature larvae are green to yellowish green and 25-30mm long. The coloration of the head varies from black to light brown. The coloration of the prothoracic shield varies from completely shaded (black or brown), to partially shaded, to having no shading (body color). The thoracic legs are dark brown to black on mature individuals.

Fully developed pupae are deep reddish brown. Male pupae average 11.5mm long and females average 13.5mm long.

Related or similar species

Adults are similar to other species of Choristoneura, especially fractivittana and parallela, although these species are not known to occur in California and males do not have a forewing costal fold. Many species of Pandemis have a similar wing pattern but male Pandemis do not have a forewing costal fold.

Larvae are variable and can appear similar to many tortricids. Early instars are nearly indistinguishable from LBAM, and molecular diagnostics are required to confirm identity. Later instars can be distinguished from LBAM if the head, prothoracic shield, or legs are black or shaded. Mature rosaceana larvae are much larger than many tortricid species, including LBAM.

Biology

Life history

Choristoneura rosaceana completes two annual generations over the majority of its range; however, only one generation is completed in northern areas and at higher elevations. Adults are present in late June though July and again in late August through September.

Eggs are laid in flat masses on the upper side of leaves. Egg masses may contain 200-900 individual eggs and are covered by the female with a waxy substance. First instar larvae hatch in 5-12 days and crawl to a protected location on the underside of leaves, in the buds, or under the calyx of a fruit. Young larvae may also disperse to other hosts by ballooning in the wind on a silk thread. Later instar larvae construct tubular shelters by webbing leaves. Larvae typically complete six instars, and second or third instars may overwinter in the fall and complete development in late May to mid-June. Pupation occurs in the final feeding shelter and lasts approximately 10-12 days.

Host plants

Larvae are polyphagous and feed on the leaves or fruits of a wide variety of plants. Preferred hosts are woody plants and members of the family Rosaceae. The following is a partial host list:apple (Malus sp.), ash (Fraxinus sp.), basswood (Tilia sp.), birch (Betula sp.), blackberry and raspberry (Rubus sp.), buckeye (Aesculus sp.), Ceanothus sp., cherry (Prunus sp.), elm (Ulmus sp.), hazelnut (Corylus), hawthorn (Crataegus); holly (Ilex sp.), maple (Acer sp.), oak (Quercus sp.), pear (Pyrus sp.), poplar (Populus sp.), rose (Rosa sp.), and willow (Salix sp.).

This species is not currently considered to be a serious economic threat. Foliage damage is usually minor and most fruit damage is superficial. There have been populations of rosaceana reported as being resistant to insecticides.

Area of origin

North America

Distribution

Continental United States and southern Canada

Taxonomy

Current valid name

Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris)

Common names

  • oblique banded leaf roller
  • rosaceous leaf roller

Synonyms

  • Archips rosaceana
  • Cacoecia rosaceana
  • Loxotaenia rosaceana
  • Lozotaenia gossypina
  • Teras vicariana
  • Tortrix rosaceana

Placement

Tortricinae: Archipini

Selected References

Carriere, Y., J. P. Deland and D. A. Roff. 1996. Obliquebanded leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) resistance to insecticides: among-orchard variation and cross-resistance. Journal of Economic Entomology. 89: 577-582.

Chapman, P. J. and S. E. Lienk. 1971. Tortricid fauna of apple in New York (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae); including an account of apple's occurrence in the state, especially as a naturalized plant. Spec. Publ. Geneva, NY: New York State Agricultural Experiment Station. 122 pp.

Chapman, P. J., S. E. Lienk and R. W. Dean. 1968. Bionomics of Choristoneura rosaceana. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 61: 285-290.

Crop Protection Compendium. 2007 Edition. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 2007.

Freeman, T. N. 1958. The Archipinae of North America (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The Canadian Entomologist. 90 (suppl. 7). 89 pp.

Powell, J. A. 1964. Biological and taxonomic studies on tortricine moths, with reference to the species in California. University of California Publications in Entomology. Vol. 32. 317 pp.